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## Mahi Tuatahi

Open your book to your table of ions. In groups (below), use your devices to find out the names of the ions of your column, and write the names on the board.

Copy the names of the ions into your book from the other groups! {width=75%} ## Ions

Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons in order to have a full valence shell.

Valence: outermost

### Example

This is an oxygen atom. Copy the diagram into your book and give the electron shell configuration e.g. [2,3] {width=50%}

Making an ion is like rounding:

• Atoms with a less than half-full valence shell will perfer to lose electrons
• Atoms with a more than half-full valence shell will prefer to gain electrons

Think again about the oxygen atom and answer these questions:

1. Will it prefer to gain or lose electrons?
2. How many electrons will it need to gain/lose to have a full outer shell? {width=30%}

Copy this table into your own book and work in pairs to complete it.

Oxygen AtomOxygen Ion
Electron Shell Configuration
Number of Protons
Number of Electrons
Overall Charge

Oxygen AtomOxygen Ion
Electron Shell Configuration[2, 6][2, 8]2-
Number of Protons88
Number of Electrons810
Overall Charge02-

#### Writing Ions

• Writing ions comes in two parts: the element, and the charge.
• The charge goes in a superscript like this.
• The number goes before the charge.

\begin{aligned} O^{2-} \end{aligned}

### Making Ionic Compounds

• To make ionic compounds we need the numbers in the superscript to balance to zero.
• To use more than one of an ion you use a subscript like this

\begin{aligned} Na^{+} + Cl^{-} \rightarrow NaCl \
Cu^{2+} + 2OH^{-} \rightarrow Cu(OH)_{2} \end{aligned}

## Game!

• Form into your table groups with a whiteboard. We are going to make some ionic compounds. It’s a race!

Your answer is simply to give the compound like this:

\begin{aligned} NaOH \end{aligned}

Sodium iodide

### Compound One

Sodium iodide: $NaI$

Silver iodide

### Compound Two

Silver iodide: $AgI$

Lithium fluoride

### Compound Three

Lithium fluoride: $LiF$

### Compound Four

Ammonium chloride

### Compound Four

Ammonium chloride: $NH_{4}CL$

Magnesium oxide

### Compound Five

Magnesium oxide: $MgO$

Lead sulfate

### Compound Six

Lead sulfate: $PbSO_{4}$

Barium carbonate

### Compound Seven

Barium carbonate: $BaCO_{3}$

Zinc iodide

### Compound Eight

Zinc iodide: $ZnI_{2}$

### Compound Nine

Aluminium chloride

### Compound Nine

Aluminium chloride: $AlCl_{3}$

### Compound Ten

Aluminium nitrate

## Aluminium nitrate: $Al(NO_{3})_{3}$

### Compound Eleven

Aluminium sulfate

### Compound Eleven

Aluminium sulfate: $Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}$

### Compound Twelve

Iron (II) oxide

Compound Twelve

Iron (II) oxide: $FeO$

Iron (III) oxide

### Compound Thirteen

Iron (III) oxide: $Fe_{2}O_{3}$

### Compound Fourteen

Sodium bicarbonate

### Compound Fourteen

Sodium bicarbonate: $NaHCO_{3}$

Lead bicarbonate

## Game Answers

1-56-1011-15
$NaI$$PbSO_{4}$$Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}$
$AgI$$BaCO_{3}$$FeO$
$LiF$$ZnI_{2}$$Fe_{2}O_{3}$
$NHCl_{3}$$AlCl_{3}$$NaHCO_{3}$
$MgO$$Al(NO_{3})_{3}$$Pb(HCO_{3})_{2}$

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## Electron Transfer

Ionic compounds form because:

• some atoms want to give away electrons to get a full valence shell (become positive)
• some atoms want to receive electrons to get a full valence shell (become negative)

By giving/receiving electrons they form an ionic bond (electrostatic forces) and make a neutral compound.